Social psychologists refer to cognitive dissonance as the presence of incongruent relations among cognitions that frequently results in mental discomfort . Ultimately, individuals who hold two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas and/or values frequently experience cognitive dissonance. This discomfort may also arise within an individual who holds a belief and a performs a contradictory action or reaction . For example, one may experience dissonance if they maintain the ideals of the Republican Party while taking a pro-choice stance. Additionally, an individual is likely to experience dissonance if he or she recognizes that smoking is unhealthy while continuing to purchase and smoke cigarettes.